Solid waste management
Assessment Item 2 (4000 words) – Due end of Week 13
Select one of the options from below for your assignment.
For the selected Region/Country/State/City in Assessment Item 1, prepare a municipal solid waste management strategy to overcome the current problems and issues and future challenges. The following key areas could be addressed in the strategy:
A) Establishing a strategic planning framework
• Understanding the existing strategic planning framework
• Defining the strategic vision
• Defining the boundaries or scope of the plan
• Defining key issues
• Setting objectives and targets
B) Identify and evaluate options for
• Institutional Framework
• Waste Collection and Recycling
• Waste Treatment and Disposal
• Financial Sustainability
• Public Awareness and Participation
C) Develop action plan
• Detailed evaluation of options
• Finalising the strategic plan
• Preparing the immediate action plan
MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN INDIA
STUDENT NAME: SIDDARTHA THANIPARTHI
STUDENT NUMBER: S2866601
TABLE OF CONTENTS
- MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT
- MSWM IN INDIA
- MSWM IN HYDERABAD
- SOLID WASTE GENERATION IN HYDERABAD
- PHYSICAL COMPOSITION OF SOLID WASTE
- EXISTING MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN HYDERABAD
- ORGANIZATION OF SOLID WASTE COLLECTION
- INSTITUTIONAL ASPECTS OF MCH
- FINANCIAL ASPECTS OF MCH
- PREDICTION OF FUTURE WASTE QUANTITIES
- PREDICTION OF FUTURE WASTE IN HYDERABAD
- MAJOR PROBLEMS AND ISSUES
MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN HYDERABAD, INDIA.
Environmental pollution has received a significant attention for the past years. Control measurements have been proposed for water and air pollution and a comprehensive volume of legislation has been passed for pollution control and prevention. The pollution of land surfaces, which has been called as third pollution consists essentially of disposal that is termed as solid waste. This third pollution has been neglected for many years until mid-sixties with the passage of solid waste disposal act (1965) to control and prevent increase of land pollution. Solid waste has increased gradually over the following years with the rise of global pollution and strong coupling between economic development and consumption. With growing concern regarding depose of solid waste, urban governments, private sectors and organized communities have devised new schemes in waste management. Due to development of multiple waste streams in solid waste, to successfully implement a proper waste management system has been a major problem in many countries around the world.
Problems due to waste exist where there a human inhabitant (UNEP 2004). When governments took the responsibility of solid waste management, they bothered only about waste generated from household and commercial activities. As newer waste streams for example electrical and electronic waste (e-waste), hazardous waste, health-care and plastic waste, construction and demolition waste etc. having surfaced posed bigger challenges on waste management. Adding to this inadequate infrastructure and services, lack of comprehensive waste management related policies and legislation, constraints on financial resources and technical knowhow compound to the problem especially in developing and poor economic countries, unless the capacities at regional/local level are enhanced and sustained. Municipal solid waste is a term usually applied to collection of solid waste by local authorities in urban areas. It is defined as waste materials traditionally managed by municipalities, whether by burning, burying, recycling or composting (US EPA, 2008). This assessment report provides a brief description about current municipal solid waste management (MSWM) system, their related problems and issues. This description is based on a local municipal organization governing solid waste management in a recent developed city Hyderabad in India. It especially focuses on solid waste generation, existing waste management system, and further their regarding problems and issues.
MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT (MSWM)
MSWM IN INDIA
Solid waste management is one of the most challenging issues in urban cities; this report provides an assessment of municipal solid waste management in Hyderabad. India is an agriculturally based country with a present population of approximately 1020 million in urban cities (Union Heath Ministry, 2004). There are 28 states and seven union territories in the country, due to industrial growth and rapid increase in population as a result the number of metropolitan cities have increased according to 2001 census report. This growth has seen growing public concern for increase in sanitation and environment (WB-Hanrahan, D 2006). Municipal corporation/Urban local bodies (ULBs) traditionally provide solid waste management services in India as they oversee the issue related with public health and sanitation. In most cities to an extent, servicesprovided by municipal corporation are measured are substandard as the systems applied are unscientific, out-dated, inefficient and do not cover the entire population. The apathy of municipal authorities who do not consider MSWM as a priority is another reason why the waste is found littered all over creating insanitary conditions. MSWM is one of the major environmental problems of Indian megacities. It involves associated with generation, storage, collection, transfer and transport, processing and disposal of solid wastes. But in most cities the MSWM system comprises only four activities i.e. waste generation, collection, transportation, and disposal, due to lack of proper infrastructure, maintenance and upgrade for all other activities. This however becomes increasingly more expensive and complex with continuous and unplanned growth of urban areas. The changing urban consumption patterns with respect to economic growth and improved incomes, the local production of goods and services has increased the per capita generation of waste, adding pressures on already stretched MSWM systems across cities in India (MoEF-GOI 2009, Sharholy et al 2007). The below figures show the population size and growth for according to census 2001.
Table 1 Indian census, 2001.
||Percentage of total population
Table 2. Increase in urban population in India.
The total Indian urban population amounts to 285 million. There are 4,378 cities and towns in India. According to 2001 census, 423 are considered class 1, exceeding a population of 100,000. The class 1 cities alone contribute to more than 72% of total MSW generated in urban areas. They include 7 mega cities which have a population of more than 4 million. The population growth rate in India is high as the above table shows that continuous increase past 50 years. At present a valve of 32.2% increase is predicted, the Central Public Health and Environmental Engineering Organization (CPHEEO) estimated a per capita waste generation in Indian cities and towns on a range of 0.2 to 0.6 kilograms per day. This alone explains the growth of waste generation is outpacing the urban population growth.
MSWM IN HYDERABAD
Hyderabad is one of the fastest growing mega cities with high increase in population and urban solid waste. Solid waste management in Hyderabad is operated by Municipal Corporation of Hyderabad (MCH). The total area covered by MCH is 1790km2 and is divided into 11 planning zones. The climate is fairly equitable with a varying mean temperature from min of 11.6°C to max of 40.56ºC. It obtained the title as Greater Hyderabad Municipal Corporation (GHMC) in April 2007, notified by the state government of Andhra Pradesh. In 1960 it started with a budget of 15 million to 10 billion at present. The total population of in the city is estimated to be 4 million. In 1993 the municipal corporation of Hyderabad has introduced a new programme called ‘Voluntary Garbage Disposal Scheme’. By 1999 it operated over 1000 residential colonies covering 175,000 households to promote people’s participation in solid waste management. The gradual involvement of private sector in sweeping and waste collection since 1995 led to further improvement of the city’s performance in SWM. Like most other Indian Municipal Corporations, the Health Section and the Transportation Section have the overall responsibilities for these activities. MCH has a total of 12,590 permanent employees of whom 7,150 are attached to Health Section. And 5,700 employees are involved in sanitation work (MCH, 1998a).
SOLID WASTE GENERATION IN HYDERABAD
The quantity of solid waste generated in MCH is estimated at 1500 ton/day in 1999 and the average generation rate per capita is around 0.35kg. The generation of waste varies from 0.24kg/day among the lower income groups to 0.75kg/day among the higher income groups. Municipal authorities have the overall responsible SWM and the need to collect useful information regarding generation of waste. They ascertain the physical and chemical composition of various categories of waste, such as that generated from households, shops and establishments, hotels and restaurants, vegetables and fruit markets, meat and fish markets, hospitals and nursing homes etc. It is important for precondition of infrastructure planning, to determine the scope of retrieval of recyclable material and construction debris and define appropriate technology for treating waste. The generation of waste is divided into two groups in bulk generators both in public and private, and small generators such as households. A report presented by MCH consists of 34 markets, commercial centres and recreation places, 923 hotels and restaurants, 93 function halls, 417 hospitals and nursing homes, 5 slaughterhouses and 30,000 cattle, in addition to one million households. It explains that though the waste generated individually are in small quantities, together they contribute about 75% of total waste in the city. The below table provides further details individually.
Table 3. Waste generation report conducted by MCH(1997)
||Estimated volumesTons per day Abs
||Estimated volumesTons per day percent
|Hotels and restaurants
|Hospitals and nursing homes
|Recreation and community centres
PHYSICAL COMPOSITION OF SOLID WASTE
The physical characteristics of wastes are categorized into bio-medical, biodegradable, recyclable and inert wastes, whereas, the chemical attributes are into pH, total moisture, fixed carbon, volatile matter and the calorific value. Transfer stations save on labour and operating costs and also reduce the number of vehicular trips to and from disposal sites. Management of solid waste are one of the most essential services which fail due to rapid urbanization and changes in waste quantity and composition. Quantity and composition of solid waste vary from place to place i.e. residential, commercial, gardens, industrial, agriculture and rural, demolition and construction, etc. With regard to the above sources municipal solid waste is a function of lifestyle and living standards based on that particular region. Report conducted by MCH on waste characteristics show high decomposable substance about 55% are frequent while collection and disposal of solid waste. It further suggests that characteristics of waste quantity have been changing with respect to time, and it is seen decline in organic (compostable) fraction and increase in inorganic material. Based on the report by MCH in 1997 the below table include the physical characteristics of urban solid waste generated by households.
Table 4. Physical composition of urban solid waste in Hyderabad (1997).
Table 5.Composition of recycling enterprises in Hyderabad
||Location of the enterprise (local zones)
||Years of set up of the unit
||Age of the unit (in years)
||Capital size (fixed capital in Rs)
||Plastic, waste paper
||Plastic waste pipes
Fig 1. Physical characteristics of municipal solid waste in Hyderabad
EXISTING MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN HYDERABAD
In India SWM is the primary responsibility and duty of the municipal authorities. State legislation and the local acts that govern municipal authorities include special provisions for collection, transport, and disposal of waste. This responsibility is mainly assigned to the chief executive of the municipal authority. Most state legislations fail to cover technical and organizational details of SWM as they fail to clarify the entire process being done. After a detailed investigation by an expert committee in all aspects of SWM in India, submitted a report to the supreme court of India in 1999. It included recommendation needed to improve that present situation. Hence a Legal framework of SWM (management and handling) rules 2000 was issued to all state governments, and municipal authorities to take necessary action. It forced to ensure management of SWM is seen according to best practice.
Organization of Solid Waste Collection
- Collection of Solid Waste
Solid waste is generated in households and institutions. Among the households a further is made between various income groups i.e. high, medium and low. And Institutions a can further be subdivided in government institutions and private institutions. All these generated waste is stored near primary locations. From this point the volume unknown is separated by servant maids, tricyclists (according to VGDS scheme), office boys and shop keepers, in which some of the organic material is sent to cattle farms, and remaining fraction is transported to composting units in MCH and private trucks. The unsegregated and mixed municipal solid waste from the primary collection points is dumped at dustbins and secondary storage points. From here the waste is carried to secondary collection points. The MCH has provided 4,900 concrete cylinder waste bins, 420 metal waste bins and 105 garbage houses covering all houses. At these intermediary points separation process takes place both by official waste workers and informal waste pickers. This is done so as to obtain any amount of valve generated by collecting recyclables.
The MCH trucks transports about 200 tons of residual waste per day, they transfer the waste to transfer stations and from these to dump sites. Some quantity is collected by dumpsite waste pickers and sold to retail and wholesale traders. The MCH currently has 183 vehicles available for transportation of waste. The average capacity of lifting is 9 tons per day and the entire fleet can remove 1700 tons per day. The MCH system is divided into two circuits, smaller trucks transport waste from secondary collection points to transfer station, from here larger trucks bring it to its ultimate destination.
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