Health psychology is concerned with how psychosocial factors relate
The following situation with Edward and Sarah will be used for each assignment. Edward is a slightly overweight, 45 year old Latino-American male. His wife, Sarah, is a thin, 27 year old Asian-American female. The couple has recently married. Edward has 2 children from a former marriage, a 22 year old son and 18 year old daughter. Both children are away at college and both their mother and Edward have been active in their lives. Both Edward and Sarah were raised in culturally traditional homes. The problem the couple presents with is that Sarah wants her own children and Edward does not. Edward says he’s had his family and is ready for grandchildren in a few more years. Sarah has always wanted a family of her own and says that Edward knew this when they married. Edward says, “well, I changed my mind”. Sarah begins to cry and says, “perhaps this marriage was a mistake”. You notice Edward controlling his anger. Sarah was born in Taiwan, but her family immigrated to the United States when Sarah was 2 years old. She had an older brother that was killed in a drug related crime in the United States when Sarah was only 10 years old. She is the only surviving sibling. Sarah’s parents have never been the same since the death of her brother. She feels that grandchildren would bring great joy to her mother and father. She tells you that her world would shatter if she is not able to have children of her own. Edward was raised by his mother and maternal grandmother. His father was an alcoholic who “came and went when it was convenient for him”. He has 2 older brothers and 3 younger sisters, all married with children. Edward tells you that he loves Sarah and thought about having more children but decided against it. He hopes that she can accept his family as her own. He says her parents rely too much on Sarah for their happiness and that it is time that Sarah lives her own life. Please respond to the following questions demonstrating your competence in the domain requested. Use the text and other resources to support your discussions, citing your resources in APA format. Culture must be integrated into your discussions. Legal and ethical issues must be included when relevant. Your responses must be ½ – 1 page per question plus a title and reference page 1. Adjustment involves the psychological processes through which people manage or cope with the demands and challenges of everyday life. Using theories of Adjustment, discuss the challenges that Sarah is facing? 2. How would Psychoanalytical theorist describe Edward and Sarah? 3. How would an Adlerian theorist describe Edward and Sarah? 4. How would a Humanistic-Existential theorist describe Edward and Sarah? 5. How would a Cognitive Behavioral theorist describe Edward and Sarah? 6. Considering the sociocultural aspects of the Latino and Asian cultures, how might you describe Edward and Sarah’s presentations? 7. Discuss the contributions of culture to theories of stress that Sarah is experiencing. 8. How might gender differences explain what Edward and Sarah are experiencing? 9. If Edward were African-American and Sarah was Caucasian, what cultural differences might you see specific to their situation? 10. Some psychologists believe that the concept of learned helplessness can be used to explain some of the behavior patterns that are frequently seen in victims of chronic abuse. What would you see in the vignette if Sarah was experiencing learned helplessness? 11. Health psychology is concerned with how psychosocial factors relate to the promotion and maintenance of health, and with the causation, prevention, and treatment of illness. Considering Sarah’s culture and background, what health related issues might you see and why? 12. Given the prevalence for alcohol related problems and noted hostility in Edward, as well as his cultural background, what health related issues might you see and why? 13. Self-esteem is one’s overall assessment of one’s worth as a person. Research indicates that cultural values and gender differences are determinants of self-esteem. In consideration of this research, how would you describe Edward in regard to self-esteem? What about Sarah? 14. Self-attributions are inferences that people draw about the causes of their own behavior. These may be internal or external, controllable and uncontrollable and affect one’s explanatory style. Discuss both Edward and Sarah’s attribution style of self and others. 15. Self-Regulation is the process of directing and controlling one’s behavior. Self-efficacy refers to people’s conviction that they can achieve specific goals that should lead to expected outcomes. How might this describe what you are seeing with both Edward and Sarah? 16. Given what you see in this situation, using the DSM-5, what are some diagnostic thoughts for Sarah and why? Consider mood disorders, anxiety disorders, personality disorders, eating disorders, trauma related disorders and any other diagnostic thoughts you have. Consider cultural issues 17. Given what you see in this situation, using the DSM-5, what are some diagnostic thoughts for Edward and why? Consider substance related disorders, impulse control disorders, personality disorders and any other diagnostic thoughts you have. Consider cultural issues. 18. Choosing 1 theory of psychotherapy, how would you treat Sarah? 19. Choosing a different theory of psychotherapy, how would you treat Edward? 20. Choosing a family systems model, how would you treat the couple? 21. Self-fulfilling prophecy occurs when expectations about a person cause the person to behave in ways that confirm the expectations. Fundamental attribution error is the tendency to explain other people’s behavior as the result of personal, rather than situational, factors. How do you see these social theories demonstrated in Edward and Sarah’s situation? 22. Social identity theory states that self-esteem is partly determined by one’s social identity or collective self, which is tied to one’s group memberships. Conformity occurs when people yield to real or imagined social pressure. In context to social identity and conformity, how might a social theorist describe both Edward and Sarah? 23. Communication theories focus on communication styles and conflict management. How might a communication theorist describe Edward and Sarah and how might they help them manage their marital conflict? 24. Attachment theory proposes that attachment styles are formed in infancy. In consideration of attachment theory, what styles of attachment do you see illustrated in Edward and Sarah’s relationship? 25. Interdependence (social exchange) theory proposes that interpersonal relationships are governed by perceptions of the rewards and costs exchanged in interactions. How might a relational theorist, work with Edward and Sarah on relationship satisfaction and commitment? 26. The situation presented suggests that Edward has an issue with anger and alcohol. According to the criteria of domestic partner abuse, what do you see going on with this couple? If a therapist felt that abuse is occurring in this home, what is their legal and ethical obligation? 27. If Edward calls the therapist and tells them that Sarah is threatening suicide, how would the therapist manage this phone call? What is the therapist’s legal and ethical obligation? 28. Edward’s daughter calls the therapist and says that her father told her to call you for her own therapy. She says that her father (Edward) told her that he would pay for her therapy and to just add it to his bill. What are the legal and ethical issues that this situation presents? 29. During the phone call from Edward’s daughter, she discloses that she wants to seek therapy to deal with one incident of sexual abuse when visiting her paternal grandfather. She tells you that this only happened once when her grandfather was drunk. She says this occurred 5 years ago and that she does not want Edward to know about this incident with his father. What legal and ethical obligations arise here? 30. The therapist decides to have a family session with Sarah, Edward, Edward’s son and daughter. What areas of privacy, privilege and informed consent present here? What other legal and ethical issues do you see? Assignment Outcomes Demonstrate competence in counseling theories Demonstrate competence in culture and diversity Demonstrate competence in research analysis Analyze and evaluate information critically and effectively
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