domains of learning
Complete each grid.
Identify 3 different domains of learning and their characteristics.
Identify a learning outcome and a learning activity for each listed domain of learning.
Complete each cell of this grid with concise descriptions. Bulleted words and phrases are preferred to complete sentences.
Provide complete answers to the two essay questions.
Domains of Learning Grids
||1. Cognitive Domain
||2. Affective Domain
||3. Psychomotor Domain
||· The nurse uses the cognitive abilities of the patients when information is provided to the patients about the adverse reactions, medication regimen, and the disease process. The nurse can use pamphlets, books, computer, and films to teach the patient and act as a resource person to the patient· The educator uses multiple methods to assess the cognitive process in the students and then builds on it through the teaching-learning process. An educator needs to employ active learning strategies in collaboration with students to develop higher order thinking. The cognitive domain can be assessed through the California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory, which assesses critical thinking a key ingredient for sound clinical judgment (Menix, 1996)
||· Is the aptitude to heed, to collaborate with others, to display viewpoints or ideas suitable for certain circumstances, to display stability and regard, and mainly exhibit a responsibility to practice on a daily basis, with the essential component to revise judgments and reassess behavior in the light of new evidence.· Likert’s scale can be used as a method to assess students attitude before and after an educational session to see if learner met the affective learning objectives (Menix, 1996)
||· In this domain of learning, the nurses or the teacher uses a systematical order to teach the learner physical skills (handling injection) or performing tasks (dressing changes). The psychomotor skills are developed through a step-wise fashion from unperfected to perfection· The nurse or teacher is the judge of how well the skills are developed and helps when needed to perfect the process (Miller, 2010)
||· Learner needs to listen and follow the instructions given by the nurse or educator depending on the who the learner· Learner can take all the time they need to understand the information provided by the nurse or educator
||· The affective domain is related to the emotional components of the learners behaviors, such as feelings, beliefs, attitudes, values, and inspiration or participation in the learning process· The learner’s role in this domain is to think critically concerning what guides their actions and how they correlate with others, reflect on their values, and make conscious decisions about the kind of nurse they want to be in practice (Valiga, 2014)
· The learner must have a positive attitude and value system in place or develop it through the program to excel as a nurse
|· Handle equipment carefully· Follow the instructions of the teacher or the nurse
· Ask questions when needed, attitude for learning, and should not compromise on quality of task being completed
· Repeat motor activities, until perfection, is not reached
||· The teacher should have a comprehensive understanding of the material being taught· The teacher should take into consideration student feedback
· Encourage learners to learn and aspire them to improve
· Teachers or nurses should act as a resource
|· The teacher must reflect on their teaching and practice before they work on this domain with the learner· The teachers role in this domain is to encourage the students and identify formation of the affective domain through sharing of personal insight, reflect on topics, and commenting on peer paper’s (Valiga, 2014)
||· The teacher should have mastery over the skill that they will teach· The teacher should provide proper instruction and demonstration to the patient or the learner
· The learner should handle instruments in the supervision of the nurse or the teacher
· The teacher or should make corrections where needed and monitor the task until perfection has not been reached
||· The learner can go through the content quickly by development of this domain and apply the material to practice or self-care
||· As the learner progresses through this domain an emotional commitment develops, patient outcomes are better with the development of this domain, and ethical decision making becomes essential as this domain develops
||· The patient or the learner has direct opportunity to learn the physical skills needed to care or provide care· Repetition will lead to mastery and the ability to complete the task independently
· Patient will be able to provide self-care
· Learners will be able to prepare for when they go into practice with the necessary skill set to excel
||· If a learner is mentally or physically not fit (blind or deaf) then he or she cannot be taught using cognitive domain in an effective manner (Miller, 2010)
||· The affective domain cannot be appropriately measured, so this makes it difficult for the educator to assess where the student is at in this domain.· Research needs to be conducted to assess further the methods that can be employed to assess this domain and build on it for placement for students, especially clinical placements (Miller, 2010)
||· If a patient or learner is physically disabled to handle instruments, perform certain tasks, or mobilize for self-care, then this leads to impediments in development of this domain
||1. Cognitive Domain
||2. Affective Domain
||3. Psychomotor Domain
|· To develop higher order thinking and utilize empirical knowledge in practice by nurses and care for self by patients· Learning outcomes can be based on the following modalities knowledge acquisition, problem-solving competency, critical thinking, clinical judgment, and communication skills (Lee, & Oh, 2015)
||· To develop or identify values, beliefs, emotions, attitude and engagement in the caring process of nursing as the student progresses through the curriculum.· Learning outcomes are based on communication and caring nature of the nursing student at the end of the curriculum
||· Improved motor skills, development of self-confidence, enhanced development of hand to eye coordination, and the ability of the learner to enter nursing practice prepared to meet the needs of the patients under their care
|· Activities that facilitate cognitive domain learning are high fidelity human simulations, case studies, and class discussion on pertinent topics· For patients, it is applying the care practice to self as the nurse watches and facilitates where necessary
||· Assessment of this domain can be done through various clinical activities· To develop or modify this domain various activities can be employed including integration of reflection, self-assessment, computer-based testing, and case studies and discussions on relevant topics
||· Repetition of tasks, for example, changing wound dressing or blood draw· Practice different types of assessments
· Administration of medication, especially intravenous or intramuscular administration
- Why is it important to identify, differentiate, and utilize the various goals of learning?
Identification of various goals of learning is essential to understand the outcome of learning. Identification helps a student develop a unique pathway that fits with the student’s learning style and helps them assimilate the information into their existing and eventually into practice, which is the end goal. Educators facilitate the process by developing a curriculum that fits the student’s learning style (Mitchell, James, & D’Amore, 2015). It is the responsibility of the nurse to teach the patients about the specific use of drugs, which have been prescribed to them. However, it is observed that most of the patients or their family members/caregivers fail to learn the therapeutic regimen and handling the injection or dressing a wound due to false assumptions on the part of the nurses. Clarity in performing self-care is essential, and the nurse needs to create a positive atmosphere for the patient and their families to learn (Wu, 2014). Therefore, it is important for the nurses to have a profound knowledge about the three learning domains, which are cognitive, psychomotor and affective. To teach the patients about their present condition and handling of drugs and injections, the nurse needs to evaluate the current situation. Based on their evaluation they need to select a proper learning domain to teach the patient. The same can be applied to a learner who are progressing through a course. An educator needs to identify the learning goals of a learner for practice, differentiate what is necessary for practice effectively, and then utilize the information to meet the needs of the learner. Therefore, it is important to have profound knowledge about the three previously mention learning domains and need to know the basic differences between those domains so that they can apply these learning domains properly on for a learner to excel.
- Analyze the three domains of learning with regards to your selected practicum cohort and concept. Describe how you plan to utilize various teaching methods that align with the domains to meet the learning goals.
All three domains are necessary for the development of leadership in the nursing field, which is the topic of the practicum. Leadership development in the nursing profession is crucial since the delivery of quality care depends mostly on the leadership. Leaders in nursing are supposed to help nurses to enhance their quality of practice, which will lead to positive patient outcomes. One of the aspects of nursing is to teach the patients and their families or their caregivers about the use or doses of medicine or how to change the dressing of the wound or handling an injection when the situation demands. Nurse leaders are expected to guide nurses working with them about how to teach the patients or the patient’s families of providing care. They need to assess the three major learning domains of the patient or family and their practical implementation in the care being provided. At first, the nurse needs to evaluate the position or the current condition of the patient and their family. Then, based on their evaluation, the nurses need to select the best type of learning domain and apply that method to teach the learners or the patients (Brown, 2011). It is observed that most of the nurses faced troubles while evaluating the affective domain of the patients or the patient’s family. In this context, it is the responsibility of a leader nurse to help out the nurses regarding how to evaluate the current situation of the patient and select the best method to teach them (Miller, 2010). The sufficient knowledge about the therapeutic effect of a drug, use of its correct dose as well as some physical techniques, which are helpful to take care of the patient after discharging from the hospital. On the other hand, the cognitive domain could be used by the leaders to help the nurses to go through the content easily (Miller, 2010). In the psychomotor domain, leaders can directly engage the nurses, patients or their families to learn practical skills to provide care. This approach is certainly helpful in the development of leadership in the field of nursing.
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